Polyclonal antibodies recognise multiple epitopes on any one antigen. Serum obtained from a host animal will contain a complex mixture of antibodies of different affinity. Polyclonal antibodies can be raised in any of the commonly used mammalian and avian hosts but in general they are raised in the larger host animals such as rabbits and goats for increased antiserum production.
When the immune system is challenged by a foreign antigen, the immune response generally involves the activation of multiple B-cells, all of which target a specific epitope on that antigen. This results in a large number of antibodies being produced with different specificities and epitope affinities; these are known as polyclonal antibodies.
The main advantage of polyclonal antibodies is that they are inexpensive to produce with generally shorter production timescales compared to monoclonals , disadvantages can include variability between different batches as well as non-specific antibodies which can sometimes give increased background noise in some applications.
Fitzgerald Industries offers a vast range of over twenty thousand polyclonal antibodies encompassing virtually every field of biochemical research and diagnostic medicine. Our purified polyclonals are available as unconjugated polyclonal antibodies or conjugated polyclonal antibodies to tags such as FITC, biotin, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), Texas Red dye and more.
Some of our most popular polyclonal antibodies include:
Streptococcus Group A antibody One of our most popular infectious disease polyclonals, this Streptococcus antibody is specific for the human infectious Group A antigen and is suitable for use in Lateral Flow applications.
HE4 antibody is used for detection ovarian cancer as HE4 is overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas. CA125, another ovarian cancer marker is elevated in 50% of patients while HE4 is detectable in serum much more frequently in earlier stages of this cancer, making it an excellent cancer diagnostic tool. This rabbit polyclonal HE4 antibody is excellent for use in IHC, particularly when using paraffin sections, as shown below in this formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer stained with HE4 antibody (5 ug/ml), peroxidase-conjugate and DAB chromogen.
Prealbumin antibody One of our most popular serum proteins, this polyclonal prealbumin antibody is specific for human prealbumin.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae antibody Suitable for ELISA, Immunohistochemistry and Western Blot, this polyclonal Neisseria gonorrhoeae antibody is an ideal choice for anyone studying this sexually transmitted infection.
IL10 antibody (biotin) This biotin conjugated polyclonal IL10 antibody is one of our most popular cytokine antibodies, IL10 enhances humoral immune responses.
E. coli antibody (HRP) This HRP conjugated E. coli antibody is recommended for use in ELISA, IHC and Western Blot applications making it an ideal choice for anyone studying this common cause of food poisoning.
Ubiquitin antibody is a widely used tool for detection of protein recycling as it binds to proteins and labels them for destruction by the proteasome. It is often used as a marker of cell stress or cell death particularly in neurodegeneration. This polyclonal Ubiquitin antibody is validated in ELISA, IHC and in Western blotting. Illustrated below is immunohistochemical staining of Lewy body in Parkinson sufferers brain using Ubiquitin antibody (20-UR20)